Research Publications


Barnes, M.R. and K. Jakstis. 2024. Winter–nature interactions elicit positive sentiments in urban millennials: A cross-cultural analysis in Minneapolis-St. Paul, USA, and Stuttgart, Germany. Ecopsychology 16:2. 

Barnes, M.R., and E. Watkins. 2024. Sports field users in Minnesota support herbicide use for weed-free recreation. Crop, Forage & Turfgrass Management, 10, e20276. [Open Access]

Jakstis, K. and M.R. Barnes. 2024. Winter-human-nature interactions: A scoping review for a neglected season. Global Environmental Psychology, 2, Article e11251. [Open Access]

Barnes, M.R., I.A. Campagna, B. Haddad, and E. Watkins. 2024. Unearthing green potential: Assessing the state of managed urban landscape curricula in Minnesota's higher education institutions. Natural Sciences Education, 53, e20139. [Open Access]


Yue, C., Y. Lai, E. Watkins, A. Patton, and R. Braun. 2023. A behavioral approach to identify barriers to adoption of new technology: A case study of low-input turfgrasses. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 55:72-99. [Open Access]

Qu, Y., L. Kne, S. Graham, E. Watkins, and K. Morris. 2023. A latent scale model to minimize subjectivity in the analysis of visual rating data for the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program. Frontiers in Plant Science 14: [Open Access]

Lai, Y., C. Yue, E. Watkins, and M. Barnes. 2023. Investigating the efficacy of government rebates: A case of the smart irrigation system. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 48(3):581-599. [Open Access]

Cui, M., C. Yue, L. Zhao, and E. Watkins. 2023. United States consumers’ landscaping expenditures: A case of garden and lawn care services and equipment. HortTechnology 33:65-78. [Open Access]

Philocles, S., A.P. Torres, A.J. Patton, and E. Watkins. 2023. The adoption of low-input turfgrasses in the midwestern US: The case of fine fescues and tall fescue. Horticulturae 9:550. [Open Access]

Barreto Ortiz, J., Hirsch, C.N., Ehlke, N.J. and Watkins, E. 2023. SpykProps: an imaging pipeline to quantify architecture in unilateral grass inflorescences. Plant Methods 19:125. [Open Access]

Jahnke, L.B. and Barnes, M.R. 2023. Longevity of rain gardens in Minnesota (US) as a stormwater solution: a question of homeowner motivation and satisfaction. Front. Sustain. Cities 5:1277066. [Open Access]

Wang, Y., Yue, C., Watkins, E., and Straw, C. 2023. How do risk preferences affect golf course superintendents’ adoption of precision irrigation technologies? Implications from prospect theory. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 55(3), 516-535. doi:10.1017/aae.2023.28 [Open Access]

Breuillin-Sessoms, F., Petrella, D. P., Ehlke, N. J, Vellekson, D., and Watkins, E. 2023. Spring wheat canopy effects on light dynamics and yield of intercropped fine fescues. Crop Science, 63:3096–3109. [Open Access]

Braun, R. C., Watkins, E., Hollman, A. B., and Patton, A. J. 2023. Assessing the fertilizer and pesticide input needs of cool-season turfgrass species. Crop Science, 63:3079–3095. [Open Access]

Wolfin, J., Watkins, E., Lane, I., Portman, Z.M. and Spivak, M. 2023. Floral enhancement of turfgrass lawns benefits wild bees and honey bees (Apis mellifera). Urban Ecosyst. 26:361-375 [Open Access]

Barnes, M.R., and E. Watkins. 2023. “Nothing beats nature”: Park visitor preferences for natural turfgrass and artificial turf: a case study, HortScience 58(4):453-458. [Open Access]

Kong, X., C. Yue, E. Watkins, M. Barnes, and Y. Lai. 2023. Investigating the effectiveness of irrigation restriction length on water use behavior. Water Resources Management 37:251–268.


Barnes, M.R., and E. Watkins. 2022. 'Greenness’ in the eye of the beholder: Comparing perceptions of sustainability and well-being between artificial and natural turfgrass. Cities and the Environment, 15(1). [Open Access]

Reiter, M., N.T. Mihelich, Y. Qiu, B.P. Horgan, and E. Watkins. 2022. Assessing fine fescue mixtures and plant growth regulator applications to determine their effect on traffic tolerance and divot recovery. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal, 14(1), 502-515. [Open Access]

Yue, C., M. Cui, X. Kong, E. Watkins, and M. Barnes, 2022. Landscape irrigation and water conservation in urban areas: An analysis of information-based strategies. HortTechnology 32(2): 213-225.

Straw, C., C. Bolton, J. Young, R. Hejl, J. Friell, and Watkins, E. 2022. Soil moisture variability on golf course fairways across the United States: an opportunity for water conservation with precision irrigation. Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment, 5, e20323. [Open Access]

Xie, Y, M. Farhadloo, N. Guo, S. Shekhar, E. Watkins, L. Kne, H. Bao, A.J. Patton, and K. Morris. 2022. NTEP-DB 1.0: A relational database for the national turfgrass evaluation program. Int Turfgrass Soc Res J. 14: 316332. [Open Access]

Braun, R.C., E. Watkins, A.B. Hollman, N.T. Mihelich, & A.J. Patton. 2022. Management, harvest, and storage characteristics of low-input cool-season turfgrass sod mixtures. Agronomy Journal 114:17521768. [Open Access]

Barnes, M.R. 2022. Urban Lawns as Nature-Based Learning Spaces. Ecopsychology 14(2):92-100. [Open Access]

Braun, R.C., E.T. Braithwaite, A.R. Kowalewski, E. Watkins, A.B. Hollman, and A.J. Patton. 2022. Nitrogen fertilizer and clover inclusion effects on the establishment of fine fescue taxa. Crop Science 62(2):947-957. [Open Access]

Petrella, D.P., F. Breuillin-Sessoms and E. Watkins. 2022. Layering contrasting photoselective filters improves the simulation of foliar shade. Plant Methods Vol 18, 16. [Open Access]

Barnes, M.R. and E. Watkins. 2022. Differences in likelihood of use between artificial and natural turfgrass lawns. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Vol 37, March 2022, 100480. [Open Access]


Barnes, M.R., C. Yue, and E. Watkins. 2021. Homeowner perceptions of watering restriction scenarios in the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area. Crop, Forage & Turfgrass Mgmt. 2021; 7:e20131. [Open Access]

Braun, R.C., E. Watkins, A.B. Hollman, N.T. Mihelich, and A.J. Patton. 2021. Investigation of cool-season species, seeding rate, and nitrogen fertilization in sod production: II. Management and shelf-life. Agronomy Journal 113(4):3460-3474.  [Open Access]

Braun, R.C., E. Watkins, A.B. Hollman, N.T. Mihelich, and A.J. Patton. 2021. Investigation of cool-season species, seeding rate, and nitrogen fertilization in sod production: I. Establishment and sod tensile strength. Agronomy Journal 113(5):4176-4189.  [Open Access]

Braun, R.C., A.J. Patton, E. Watkins, A.B. Hollman, J.A. Murphy, B.S. Park, A.R. Kowalewski, and E.T. Braithwaite. 2021. Optimal fine fescue mixture seeding dates in the northern United States. Agronomy Journal 113(5):4413-4428.  [Open Access]

Petrella, D.P., S. Bauer, B.P. Horgan, and E. Watkins. 2021. Exploring fine fescues as an option for low-input golf greens in the north-central USA. Crop Science 61(5):2949-2962.  [Open Access]

Friell, J. and E. Watkins. 2021. Review of cool‐season turfgrasses for salt‐affected roadsides in cold climates. Crop Science 61(5):2893-2915.  [Open Access]

Heineck, G.C., N.J. Ehlke, and E. Watkins. 2021. Predictive ability of perennial ryegrass spaced-plant nurseries for turfgrass and seed production swards in Minnesota. Crop Science 61(5):2997-3010.  [Open Access]

Breuillin‐Sessoms, F., D.P. Petrella, D. Sandor, S.J. Bauer, and B.P. Horgan. 2021. Response of retail lawn seed products during acute drought and recovery. HortTechnology 31(4):448-457.  [Open Access]

Qiu, Y., Y. Yang, C.D. Hirsch, and E. Watkins. 2021. Building a reference transcriptome for the hexaploid hard fescue turfgrass (Festuca brevipila) using a combination of PacBio Isoseq and Illumina sequencing. Crop Science 61(4):2798-2811.  [Open Access]

Breuillin‐Sessoms, F., D.P. Petrella, J.M. Trappe, N.T. Mihelich, A.J. Patton, and E. Watkins. 2021. Field evaluation of weed suppression in fine fescue (Festuca spp.). Crop Science 61(4):2812-2826.  [Open Access]

Lonsdorf, E.V., C. Nootenboom, B. Janke and B.P. Horgan. 2021. Assessing urban ecosystem services provided by green infrastructure: Golf courses in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metro area. Landscape and Urban Planning 208:104022. [Open Access]


Braun R.C., A.J. Patton, E. Watkins, P.L. Koch, N.P. Anderson, S.A. Bonos, and L.A. Brilman. 2020. Fine fescues: A review of the species, their improvement, production, establishment, and management. Crop Science 60:1142–1187.

Heineck, G.C., N.J. Ehlke, K.R. Altendorf, R.F. Denison, J.M. Jungers, E.G. Lamb and E. Watkins. 2020. Relationships and influence of yield components on spaced‐plant and sward seed yield in perennial ryegrass. Grass Forage Sci. 75(4):424-437. [Open Access]

Breuillin‐Sessoms, F. and E. Watkins. 2020. Performance of multiple turfgrass species during prolonged heat stress and recovery in a controlled environment. Crop Science 60(6):3344-3361. [Open Access]

Petrella, D.P. and E. Watkins. 2020. Variation in fine fescue taxa response to simulated foliar shade. Crop Science 60(6):3377-3394. [Open Access]

Qiu, Y., S. Hamernick, J.B. Ortiz, and E. Watkins. 2020. DNA content and ploidy estimation of Festuca ovina accessions by flow cytometry. Crop Science 60: 2757– 2767. [Open Access]

Heineck, G.C., Y. Qiu, N.J. Ehlke, and E. Watkins. 2020.  The fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae var. lolii plays a limited role in mediating crown rust severity in perennial ryegrass.  Crop Science 60: 1090– 1104.

Straw, C.M., F.M. Principe, E.L. Kurtz, D.M. Wiese-Bjornstal and B.P. Horgan. 2020. Within-field variability of turfgrass surface properties and athlete performance: Modeling their relationship using GPS and GIS technologies. Proc I Mech E Part P: J Sports Engineering and Technology 1–6.


Qiu, Y., C.D. Hirsch, Y. Yang and E. Watkins. 2019. Towards Improved Molecular Identification Tools in Fine Fescue (Festuca L., Poaceae) Turfgrasses: Nuclear Genome Size, Ploidy, and Chloroplast Genome Sequencing. Frontiers in Genetics 10:1223.

Lane, I.G., J. Wolfin, E. Watkins and M. Spivak. 2019. Testing the establishment of eight forbs in mowed lawns of hard fescue (Festuca brevipila) for use in pollinator conservation. HortScience 54(12):2150–2155.

Straw, C.M., Wardrop, W.S. and Horgan, B.P. 2019. Golf course superintendents’ knowledge of variability within fairways: a tool for precision turfgrass management. Precision Agric:1-19.

Heineck, G.C., I.C. McNish, J.M. Jungers, E. Gilbert, and E. Watkins. 2019. Using R-based image analysis to quantify rusts on perennial ryegrass. The Plant Phenome Journal 2:

Yue, C., J. Wang, E. Watkins, Y. Xie, S. Shekhar, S.A. Bonos, A. Patton, K. Morris, and K. Moncada. 2019. User preferences for accessing publically available turfgrass cultivar performance data. HortTechnology 1:1-12.

Lane, I., E. Watkins, and M. Spivak. 2019. Turfgrass species affect the establishment and bloom of kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum) in lawns. HortScience 54:824.

Ramer, H., K.C. Nelson, M. Spivak, E. Watkins, J. Wolfin and M. Pulscher. 2019. Exploring park visitor perceptions of ‘flowering bee lawns’ in neighborhood parks in Minneapolis, MN, US. Landscape and Urban Planning 189:117-128.

Yue, C., J. Wang, E. Watkins, S.A. Bonos, K.C. Nelson, J.A. Murphy, W.A. Meyer, and B.P. Horgan. 2019. Investigating the practices and challenges for turfgrass breeders and distributors. HortScience 54: 129.

Heineck, G.C., Bauer, S.J., Cavanaugh, M., Hollman, A., Watkins, E., and B.P. Horgan. 2019. Variability in creeping bentgrass cultivar germinability as influenced by cold temperatures. Crop, Forage and Turfgrass Management.


Grimshaw, A., S. Bonos, W. Meyer, E. Watkins, and Y. Qu. 2018. Heritability of simulated wear and traffic tolerance in three fine fescue species. HortScience 53: 416-420.

Heineck, G.C., E. Watkins, and N.J. Ehlke. 2018. The Fungal Endophyte Epichloë festucae var. lolii Does Not Improve the Freezing Tolerance of Perennial Ryegrass. Crop Sci. 58:1788-1800.

Grimshaw, A.L., Y. Qu, W.A. Meyer, E. Watkins, and S.A. Bonos.  2018.  Heritability of Simulated Wearand Traffic Tolerance in Three Fine Fescue Species. HortScience. 53(4):416–420. 2018.

Heineck, G., E. Watkins and N.J. Ehlke.  2018.  Exploring alternative management options for multiyear perennial ryegrass seed production in northern Minnesota.  Crop Science.  58(1):426-434.


Yue, C., J. Wang, E. Watkins, S.A. Bonos, K.C. Nelson, J.A. Murphy, W.A. Meyer, and B.P. Horgan.  2017.  An investigation of trait prioritization in turfgrass breeding programs. HortScience.  52(11):1544-1549.

Barnes, M.R., K.C. Nelson, A.J. Meyer, E. Watkins, S.A. Bonos, B.P. Horgan, W.A. Meyer, J. Murphy, and C. Yue.  2017.  Public land managers and sustainable urban vegetation: the case of low-input turfgrasses. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening.

Bauer, S., M. Cavanaugh and B.P. Horgan.  2017.  Wetting agent influence on putting green surface firmness.  Int. Turf Res. Journal.  13:1-15.

Rice, P.J., B.P. Horgan and J. Hamlin.  2017.  Evaluation of individual and combined management practices to reduce the off-site transport of pesticides from golf course turf.  Science of the Total Environment.  583:72-80.

Rice, P.J. and B.P. Horgan.  2017.  Off-site transport of nitrogen fertilizer with runoff from golf course fairway turf: A comparison of creeping bentgrass with a fine fescue mixture.  Science of the Total Environment.  580:533-539.

Koch, P.L., D.J. Soldat, S.J. Bauer, A.J. Patton and B.P. Horgan.  2017.  The great lakes school of turfgrass science: A nine-state online collaboration to improve the turfgrass short course.  Journal of Extension. 55(3):1-6.

Reiter, M., J. Friell, B. Horgan, D. Soldat, and E. Watkins.  2017.  Drought response of fine fescue mixtures maintained as a golf course fairway.  International Turfgrass Society Research Journal 13:65-74.

Hollman, A.B., G.C. Heineck, F.W. Frank, S.J. Bauer, J. Bryan, and B.P. Horgan.  2017.  Effects of de-icing products on putting green turf.  International Turfgrass Society Research Journal 13:1-8.

Yue, C., J. Wang, E. Watkins, S. Bonos, K. Nelson, J.A. Murphy, W. Meyer and B. Horgan.  2017.  Consumer preferences for information sources of turfgrass products and lawn care.  Agronomy Journal 109:1726-1733.

Bauer, S., B.P. Horgan, D. Soldat and D. Gardner.  2017.  Effects of low temperatures on nitrogen uptake, partitioning and utilization in creeping bentgrass putting greens. Crop Sci. 57:1001-1009.

Yue, C., J. Wang, E. Watkins, S. Bonos, K. Nelson, J. Murphy, W. Meyer, and B. Horgan. 2017. Heterogeneous consumer preferences for turfgrass attributes in the United States and Canada. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics.


Friell, J., E. Watkins, B.P. Horgan, M. Cavanaugh. 2016. Sod strength characteristics of 51 cool-season turfgrass mixtures. Agronomy Journal 109:1749-1757.

Hugie, K.L. and E. Watkins. 2016. Performance of low-input turfgrass species as affected by mowing and nitrogen fertilization in Minnesota. HortScience 51:1278-1286.

Dabney III, C., J. Ostergaard, E. Watkins, and C. Chen. 2016. A novel method to characterize silica bodies in grasses. Plant Methods 12:


Friell, J., E. Watkins, and B.P. Horgan. 2015. Cool-season turfgrass species mixtures for roadsides in Minnesota. Ecological Engineering 84:579-587.

Koeritz, E.J., E. Watkins, and N.J. Ehlke. 2015. Seeding rate, row spacing, and nitrogen rate effects on perennial ryegrass seed production.  Crop Science: 55:2319-2333.


Watkins, E., D.S. Gardner, J.C. Stier, D.J. Soldat, R.A. St. John, N.E. Christians, A.D. Hathaway, K.L. Diesburg, S.R. Poppe, R.E. Gaussoin. 2014. Cultivar performance of low-input turfgrass species for the North Central United States. Applied Turfgrass Science:


Miller, D., R. Mugaas, M. Meyer, and E. Watkins. 2013.  Performance of low-maintenance turfgrass mixtures and blends. HortTechnology 23:610-612.

Friell, J., E. Watkins, and B. Horgan. 2013. Salt-tolerance of 74 turfgrass cultivars in nutrient solution culture. Crop Science 2013 53:1743-1749.

Koeritz, E., E. Watkins, and N.J. Ehlke. 2013. A split application approach to nitrogen and growth regulator management for perennial ryegrass seed production.  Crop Science 53:1762-1777.


Yue, C., K. Hugie and E. Watkins.  2012. Are consumers willing to pay more for low-input turfgrasses on residential lawns? Evidence from choice experiments.  Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 44:549-560.

Clark, M.D, and E. Watkins.  2012. Broad-sense heritability estimates of turfgrass performance characteristics in native prairie junegrass germplasm. HortScience 47:1228-1233.

Hugie, K., C. Yue, and E. Watkins. 2012. Consumer preferences for low-input turfgrasses: A conjoint analysis. HortScience 47:1096-1101.

Hulke, B.S., B.S. Bushman, E. Watkins, and N.J. Ehlke. 2012. Association of freezing tolerance to LpCBFIIIb and LpCBFIIIc gene polymorphism in perennial ryegrass accessions. Crop Science 52:2023-2029.

Friell, J., E. Watkins, and B. Horgan. 2012. Salt tolerance of 75 cool-season turfgrasses for roadsides. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B – Soil & Plant Science 62:44-52.

Bauer, S., B.P. Horgan, E. Watkins, A. Hathaway, R. Calhoun, and K. Frank. 2012. Establishment of creeping bentgrass in annual bluegrass fairways using glyphosate and interseedingOnline. Applied Turfgrass Science

Bauer, S., D. Lloyd, B.P. Horgan, and D.J. Soldat. 2012. Agronomic and physiological responses of cool-season turfgrass to fall-applied nitrogen. Crop Science 52:1-10.


Cavanaugh, M., E. Watkins, B. Horgan, and M. Meyer. 2011. Conversion of Kentucky bluegrass rough to no-mow, low-input grasses.  Online. Applied Turfgrass Science

Wang, S., Q. Zhang, and E. Watkins. 2011. Evaluation of salinity tolerance of prairie junegrass, a potential low-maintenance turfgrass species. HortScience 46: 1038-1045.

Rice, P.J., B.P. Horgan, C.Hapeman and L. McConnell.  2011.  Efficacy of management practices to mitigate off-site movement and ecological risk of pesticides transported with runoff from agriculture and turf systemsIn Pesticides – Formulations, Effects, Fate, Margarita Stoytcheva (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-532-7, InTech.

Watkins, E, S. Fei, D. Gardner, J. Stier, S. Bughrara, D. Li, C. Bigelow, L. Schliecher, B. Horgan and K. Diesburg. 2011.  Low-input turfgrass species for the north central United States. Online. Applied Turfgrass Science


Bierman, P.M., B.P. Horgan, C.J. Rosen, A.B. Hollman and P.H. Pagliari.  2010.  Phosphorus runoff from turfgrass as affected by phosphorus fertilization and clipping management.  Journal of Environmental Quality 39:282-292.

Clark, M.D., and E. Watkins. 2010. Seed production characteristics of prairie junegrass germplasm accessions. Crop Science 50:1057-1065.

Clark, M.D., and E. Watkins. 2010. Turfgrass characteristics of prairie junegrass germplasm accessions. Crop Science 50:2092-2102.

Hoffman, L., M. DaCosta, J.S. Ebdon, and E. Watkins. 2010. Physiological changes during cold acclimation of perennial ryegrass accessions differing in freeze tolerance. Crop Science 50:1037-1047.

Kerns, J.P., P.L. Koch, D. Cook, B.P. Horgan and F.P. Wong.  2010.  First report of brown patch caused by Waitea circinata var. circinata on Poa annua in Wisconsin and Minnesota.  Plant Disease.  Vol. 94, No. 9:1165.

Jiang, Y., E. Watkins, S. Liu, X. Yu, and N. Luo. 2010. Antioxidative responses and candidate gene expression in prairie junegrass under drought stress. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 135: 303-309.

Rice, P.J., B.P. Horgan and J.L. Rittenhouse.  2010.  Pesticide transport with runoff from creeping bentgrass turf:  relationship of pesticide properties to mass transport.  Envrion. Tox. and Chem. Vol. 29, No. 6:1209-1214.

Rice, P.J., B.P. Horgan and J.L. Rittenhouse.  2010.  Evaluation of core cultivation practices to reduce ecological risk of pesticides in runoff from Agrostis palustris.   Environ. Tox. and Chem. Vol. 29, No. 6:1215-1223.

Watkins, E., A.B. Hollman and B.P. Horgan.  2010.  Evaluation of alternative turfgrass species for low-input golf course fairways.  HortScience  45(1):113-118.


Kramer, K. E., P.J. Rice, B.P. Horgan, J.L. Rittenhouse, and K.W. King. 2009. Pesticide Transport with Runoff from Turf: Observations Compared with TurfPQ Model Simulations. J. Environ. Qual. 38:2402-2411. 

Johnsen, A. R., B. P. Horgan, B. S. Hulke, and V. Cline. 2009. Evaluation of Remote Sensing to Measure Plant Stress in Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) Fairways. Crop Sci. 49:2261-2274.


Hulke, B.S., Watkins, E., Wyse, D.L. and N. J. Ehlke. Freezing tolerance of selected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) accessions and its association with field winterhardiness and turf traits. Euphytica 163, 131–141 (2008). 


Hulke, B.S., E. Watkins, D. Wyse, and N. Ehlke. 2007. Winterhardiness and Turf Quality of Accessions of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) from Public Collections. Crop Sci. 47:1596-1602. 


Sass, J.F., and B.P. Horgan. 2006. Irrigation Scheduling on Sand-Based Creeping Bentgrass: Evaluating Evapotranspiration Estimation, Capacitance Sensors, and Deficit Irrigation in the Upper Midwest. Applied Turfgrass Sci. 3.