Research Publications

Braun, R.C., E. Watkins, A.B. Hollman, N.T. Mihelich, and A.J. Patton. 2021. Investigation of cool-season species, seeding rate, and nitrogen fertilization in sod production: II. Management and shelf-life. Agronomy Journal 113(4):3460-3474  [Open Access]

Braun, R.C., E. Watkins, A.B. Hollman, N.T. Mihelich, and A.J. Patton. 2021. Investigation of cool-season species, seeding rate, and nitrogen fertilization in sod production: I. Establishment and sod tensile strength. Agronomy Journal 113(5):4176-4189.  [Open Access]

Braun, R.C., A.J. Patton, E. Watkins, A.B. Hollman, J.A. Murphy, B.S. Park, A.R. Kowalewski, and E.T. Braithwaite. 2021. Optimal fine fescue mixture seeding dates in the northern United States. Agronomy Journal 113(5):4413-4428.  [Open Access]

D.P. Petrella, S. Bauer, B.P. Horgan, and E. Watkins. 2021. Exploring fine fescues as an option for low-input golf greens in the north-central USA. Crop Science 61(5):2949-2962.  [Open Access]

Friell, J. and E. Watkins. 2021. Review of cool‐season turfgrasses for salt‐affected roadsides in cold climates. Crop Science 61(5):2893-2915.  [Open Access]

Heineck, G.C., N.J. Ehlke, and E. Watkins. 2021. Predictive ability of perennial ryegrass spaced-plant nurseries for turfgrass and seed production swards in Minnesota. Crop Science 61(5):2997-3010.  [Open Access]

Breuillin‐Sessoms, F., D.P. Petrella, D. Sandor, S.J. Bauer, and B.P. Horgan. 2021. Response of retail lawn seed products during acute drought and recovery. HortTechnology 31(4):448-457.  [Open Access]

Qiu, Y., Y. Yang, C.D. Hirsch, and E. Watkins. 2021. Building a reference transcriptome for the hexaploid hard fescue turfgrass (Festuca brevipila) using a combination of PacBio Isoseq and Illumina sequencing. Crop Science 61(4):2798-2811.  [Open Access]

Breuillin‐Sessoms, F., D.P. Petrella, J.M. Trappe, N.T. Mihelich, A.J. Patton, and E. Watkins. 2021. Field evaluation of weed suppression in fine fescue (Festuca spp.). Crop Science 61(4):2812-2826.  [Open Access]

Lonsdorf, E.V., C. Nootenboom, B. Janke and B.P. Horgan. 2021. Assessing urban ecosystem services provided by green infrastructure: Golf courses in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metro area. Landscape and Urban Planning 208:104022. [Open Access]

Heineck, G.C., N.J. Ehlke, K.R. Altendorf, R.F. Denison, J.M. Jungers, E.G. Lamb and E. Watkins. 2020. Relationships and influence of yield components on spaced‐plant and sward seed yield in perennial ryegrass. Grass Forage Sci. 75(4):424-437. [Open Access]

Breuillin‐Sessoms, F. and E. Watkins. 2020. Performance of multiple turfgrass species during prolonged heat stress and recovery in a controlled environment. Crop Science 60(6):3344-3361. [Open Access]

Petrella, D.P. and E. Watkins. 2020. Variation in fine fescue taxa response to simulated foliar shade. Crop Science 60(6):3377-3394. [Open Access]

Qiu, Y., S. Hamernick, J.B. Ortiz, and E. Watkins. 2020. DNA content and ploidy estimation of Festuca ovina accessions by flow cytometry. Crop Science 60: 2757– 2767. [Open Access]

Heineck, G.C., Y. Qiu, N.J. Ehlke, and E. Watkins. 2020. The fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae var. lolii plays a limited role in mediating crown rust severity in perennial ryegrass. Crop Science 60: 1090– 1104.

Straw, C.M., F.M. Principe, E.L. Kurtz, D.M. Wiese-Bjornstal and B.P. Horgan. 2020. Within-field variability of turfgrass surface properties and athlete performance: Modeling their relationship using GPS and GIS technologies. Proc I Mech E Part P: J Sports Engineering and Technology 1–6.

Qiu, Y., C.D. Hirsch, Y. Yang and E. Watkins. 2019. Towards Improved Molecular Identification Tools in Fine Fescue (Festuca L., Poaceae) Turfgrasses: Nuclear Genome Size, Ploidy, and Chloroplast Genome Sequencing. Frontiers in Genetics 10:1223.

Lane, I.G., J. Wolfin, E. Watkins and M. Spivak. 2019. Testing the establishment of eight forbs in mowed lawns of hard fescue (Festuca brevipila) for use in pollinator conservation. HortScience 54(12):2150–2155.

Straw, C.M., Wardrop, W.S. and Horgan, B.P. 2019. Golf course superintendents’ knowledge of variability within fairways: a tool for precision turfgrass management. Precision Agric:1-19.

Heineck, G.C., I.C. McNish, J.M. Jungers, E. Gilbert, and E. Watkins. 2019. Using R-based image analysis to quantify rusts on perennial ryegrass. The Plant Phenome Journal 2: doi:10.2135/tppj2018.12.0010.

Yue, C., J. Wang, E. Watkins, Y. Xie, S. Shekhar, S.A. Bonos, A. Patton, K. Morris, and K. Moncada. 2019. User preferences for accessing publically available turfgrass cultivar performance data. HortTechnology 1:1-12.

Lane, I., E. Watkins, and M. Spivak. 2019. Turfgrass species affect the establishment and bloom of kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum) in lawns. HortScience 54:824.

Ramer, H., K.C. Nelson, M. Spivak, E. Watkins, J. Wolfin and M. Pulscher. 2019. Exploring park visitor perceptions of ‘flowering bee lawns’ in neighborhood parks in Minneapolis, MN, US. Landscape and Urban Planning 189:117-128.

Yue, C., J. Wang, E. Watkins, S.A. Bonos, K.C. Nelson, J.A. Murphy, W.A. Meyer, and B.P. Horgan. 2019. Investigating the practices and challenges for turfgrass breeders and distributors. HortScience 54: 129. doi:10.21273/hortsci13343-18.

Heineck, G.C., Bauer, S.J., Cavanaugh, M., Hollman, A., Watkins, E., and B.P. Horgan. 2019. Variability in creeping bentgrass cultivar germinability as influenced by cold temperatures. Crop, Forage and Turfgrass Management. doi:10.2134/cftm2018.07.0054.

Grimshaw, A., S. Bonos, W. Meyer, E. Watkins, and Y. Qu. 2018. Heritability of simulated wear and traffic tolerance in three fine fescue species. HortScience 53: 416-420.

Heineck, G.C., E. Watkins, and N.J. Ehlke. 2018. The Fungal Endophyte Epichloë festucae var. lolii Does Not Improve the Freezing Tolerance of Perennial Ryegrass. Crop Sci. 58:1788-1800. doi:10.2135/cropsci2017.12.0731

Grimshaw, A.L., Y. Qu, W.A. Meyer, E. Watkins, and S.A. Bonos.  2018.  Heritability of Simulated Wearand Traffic Tolerance in Three Fine Fescue Species. HortScience. 53(4):416–420. 2018.

Heineck, G., E. Watkins and N.J. Ehlke.  2018.  Exploring alternative management options for multiyear perennial ryegrass seed production in northern Minnesota.  Crop Science.  58(1):426-434. doi:10.2135/cropsci2017.03.0136.

Yue, C., J. Wang, E. Watkins, S.A. Bonos, K.C. Nelson, J.A. Murphy, W.A. Meyer, and B.P. Horgan.  2017.  An investigation of trait prioritization in turfgrass breeding programs. HortScience.  52(11):1544-1549.

Barnes, M.R., K.C. Nelson, A.J. Meyer, E. Watkins, S.A. Bonos, B.P. Horgan, W.A. Meyer, J. Murphy, and C. Yue.  2017.  Public land managers and sustainable urban vegetation: the case of low-input turfgrasses. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening.

Bauer, S., M. Cavanaugh and B.P. Horgan.  2017.  Wetting agent influence on putting green surface firmness.  Int. Turf Res. Journal.  13:1-15.

Rice, P.J., B.P. Horgan and J. Hamlin.  2017.  Evaluation of individual and combined management practices to reduce the off-site transport of pesticides from golf course turf.  Science of the Total Environment.  583:72-80.

Rice, P.J. and B.P. Horgan.  2017.  Off-site transport of nitrogen fertilizer with runoff from golf course fairway turf: A comparison of creeping bentgrass with a fine fescue mixture.  Science of the Total Environment.  580:533-539.

Koch, P.L., D.J. Soldat, S.J. Bauer, A.J. Patton and B.P. Horgan.  2017.  The great lakes school of turfgrass science: A nine-state online collaboration to improve the turfgrass short course.  Journal of Extension. 55(3):1-6.

Reiter, M., J. Friell, B. Horgan, D. Soldat, and E. Watkins.  2017.  Drought response of fine fescue mixtures maintained as a golf course fairway.  International Turfgrass Society Research Journal 13:65-74.  doi:10.2134/itsrj2016.06.0460.

Hollman, A.B., G.C. Heineck, F.W. Frank, S.J. Bauer, J. Bryan, and B.P. Horgan.  2017.  Effects of de-icing products on putting green turf.  International Turfgrass Society Research Journal 13:1-8.  doi:10.2134/itsrj2016.06.0488.

Yue, C., J. Wang, E. Watkins, S. Bonos, K. Nelson, J.A. Murphy, W. Meyer and B. Horgan.  2017.  Consumer preferences for information sources of turfgrass products and lawn care.  Agronomy Journal 109:1726-1733.  doi:10.2134/agronj2016.05.0310.

Bauer, S., B.P. Horgan, D. Soldat and D. Gardner.  2017.  Effects of low temperatures on nitrogen uptake, partitioning and utilization in creeping bentgrass putting greens. Crop Sci. 57:1001-1009.

Friell, J., E. Watkins, B.P. Horgan, M. Cavanaugh. 2016. Sod strength characteristics of 51 cool-season turfgrass mixtures. Agronomy Journal 109:1749-1757.  doi:10.2134/agronj2016.05.0295.

Hugie, K.L. and E. Watkins. 2016. Performance of low-input turfgrass species as affected by mowing and nitrogen fertilization in Minnesota. HortScience 51:1278-1286.

Yue, C., J. Wang, E. Watkins, S. Bonos, K. Nelson, J. Murphy, W. Meyer, and B. Horgan. 2017. Heterogeneous consumer preferences for turfgrass attributes in the United States and Canada. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics. doi:10.1111/cjag.12128

Dabney III, C., J. Ostergaard, E. Watkins, and C. Chen. 2016. A novel method to characterize silica bodies in grasses. Plant Methods 12: doi 10.1186/s13007-016-0108-8.

Friell, J., E. Watkins, and B.P. Horgan. 2015. Cool-season turfgrass species mixtures for roadsides in Minnesota. Ecological Engineering 84:579-587.

Koeritz, E.J., E. Watkins, and N.J. Ehlke. 2015. Seeding rate, row spacing, and nitrogen rate effects on perennial ryegrass seed production.  Crop Science: 55:2319-2333.

Watkins, E., D.S. Gardner, J.C. Stier, D.J. Soldat, R.A. St. John, N.E. Christians, A.D. Hathaway, K.L. Diesburg, S.R. Poppe, R.E. Gaussoin. 2014. Cultivar performance of low-input turfgrass species for the North Central United States. Applied Turfgrass Science: doi:10.2134/ATS-2013-0101-RS.

Miller, D., R. Mugaas, M. Meyer, and E. Watkins. 2013.  Performance of low-maintenance turfgrass mixtures and blends. HortTechnology 23:610-612.

Friell, J., E. Watkins, and B. Horgan. 2013. Salt-tolerance of 74 turfgrass cultivars in nutrient solution culture. Crop Science 2013 53:1743-1749.

Koeritz, E., E. Watkins, and N.J. Ehlke. 2013. A split application approach to nitrogen and growth regulator management for perennial ryegrass seed production.  Crop Science 53:1762-1777.

Yue, C., K. Hugie and E. Watkins.  2012. Are consumers willing to pay more for low-input turfgrasses on residential lawns? Evidence from choice experiments.  Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 44:549-560.

Clark, M.D, and E. Watkins.  2012. Broad-sense heritability estimates of turfgrass performance characteristics in native prairie junegrass germplasm. HortScience 47:1228-1233.

Hugie, K., C. Yue, and E. Watkins. 2012. Consumer preferences for low-input turfgrasses: A conjoint analysis. HortScience 47:1096-1101.

Hulke, B.S., B.S. Bushman, E. Watkins, and N.J. Ehlke. 2012. Association of freezing tolerance to LpCBFIIIb and LpCBFIIIc gene polymorphism in perennial ryegrass accessions. Crop Science 52:2023-2029.

Friell, J., E. Watkins, and B. Horgan. 2012. Salt tolerance of 75 cool-season turfgrasses for roadsides. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B – Soil & Plant Science 62:44-52.

Bauer, S., B.P. Horgan, E. Watkins, A. Hathaway, R. Calhoun, and K. Frank. 2012. Establishment of creeping bentgrass in annual bluegrass fairways using glyphosate and interseedingOnline. Applied Turfgrass Science doi:10.1094/ATS-2012-0127-01-RS.

Bauer, S., D. Lloyd, B.P. Horgan, and D.J. Soldat. 2012. Agronomic and physiological responses of cool-season turfgrass to fall-applied nitrogen. Crop Science 52:1-10.

Cavanaugh, M., E. Watkins, B. Horgan, and M. Meyer. 2011. Conversion of Kentucky bluegrass rough to no-mow, low-input grasses.  Online. Applied Turfgrass Science doi:10.1094/ATS-2011-0926-02-RS.

Wang, S., Q. Zhang, and E. Watkins. 2011. Evaluation of salinity tolerance of prairie junegrass, a potential low-maintenance turfgrass species. HortScience 46: 1038-1045.

Rice, P.J., B.P. Horgan, C.Hapeman and L. McConnell.  2011.  Efficacy of management practices to mitigate off-site movement and ecological risk of pesticides transported with runoff from agriculture and turf systems.  In Pesticides – Formulations, Effects, Fate, Margarita Stoytcheva (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-532-7, InTech.

Watkins, E, S. Fei, D. Gardner, J. Stier, S. Bughrara, D. Li, C. Bigelow, L. Schliecher, B. Horgan and K. Diesburg. 2011.  Low-input turfgrass species for the north central United States. Online. Applied Turfgrass Science doi:10.1094/ATS-2011-0126-02-RS.

Bierman, P.M., B.P. Horgan, C.J. Rosen, A.B. Hollman and P.H. Pagliari.  2010.  Phosphorus runoff from turfgrass as affected by phosphorus fertilization and clipping management.  Journal of Environmental Quality 39:282-292.

Clark, M.D., and E. Watkins. 2010. Seed production characteristics of prairie junegrass germplasm accessions. Crop Science 50:1057-1065.

Clark, M.D., and E. Watkins. 2010. Turfgrass characteristics of prairie junegrass germplasm accessions. Crop Science 50:2092-2102.

Hoffman, L., M. DaCosta, J.S. Ebdon, and E. Watkins. 2010. Physiological changes during cold acclimation of perennial ryegrass accessions differing in freeze tolerance. Crop Science 50:1037-1047.

Kerns, J.P., P.L. Koch, D. Cook, B.P. Horgan and F.P. Wong.  2010.  First report of brown patch caused by Waitea circinata var. circinata on Poa annua in Wisconsin and Minnesota.  Plant Disease.  Vol. 94, No. 9:1165.

Jiang, Y., E. Watkins, S. Liu, X. Yu, and N. Luo. 2010. Antioxidative responses and candidate gene expression in prairie junegrass under drought stress. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 135: 303-309.

Rice, P.J., B.P. Horgan and J.L. Rittenhouse.  2010.  Pesticide transport with runoff from creeping bentgrass turf:  relationship of pesticide properties to mass transport.  Envrion. Tox. and Chem. Vol. 29, No. 6:1209-1214.

Rice, P.J., B.P. Horgan and J.L. Rittenhouse.  2010.  Evaluation of core cultivation practices to reduce ecological risk of pesticides in runoff from Agrostis palustris.   Environ. Tox. and Chem. Vol. 29, No. 6:1215-1223.

Watkins, E., A.B. Hollman and B.P. Horgan.  2010.  Evaluation of alternative turfgrass species for low-input golf course fairways.  HortScience  45(1):113-118.

Kramer, K. E., P.J. Rice, B.P. Horgan, J.L. Rittenhouse, and K.W. King. 2009. Pesticide Transport with Runoff from Turf: Observations Compared with TurfPQ Model Simulations. J. Environ. Qual. 38:2402-2411. doi:10.2134/jeq2008.0433 

Johnsen, A. R., B. P. Horgan, B. S. Hulke, and V. Cline. 2009. Evaluation of Remote Sensing to Measure Plant Stress in Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) Fairways. Crop Sci. 49:2261-2274. doi:10.2135/cropsci2008.09.0544

Hulke, B.S., Watkins, E., Wyse, D.L. and N. J. Ehlke. Freezing tolerance of selected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) accessions and its association with field winterhardiness and turf traits. Euphytica 163, 131–141 (2008). 

Hulke, B.S., E. Watkins, D. Wyse, and N. Ehlke. 2007. Winterhardiness and Turf Quality of Accessions of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) from Public Collections. Crop Sci. 47:1596-1602. doi:10.2135/cropsci2006.10.0671 

Sass, J.F., and B.P. Horgan. 2006. Irrigation Scheduling on Sand-Based Creeping Bentgrass: Evaluating Evapotranspiration Estimation, Capacitance Sensors, and Deficit Irrigation in the Upper Midwest. Applied Turfgrass Sci. 3. doi:10.1094/ATS-2006-0330-01-RS